Reference: Peters C and Mayer A (1998) Ca2+/calmodulin signals the completion of docking and triggers a late step of vacuole fusion. Nature 396(6711):575-80

Reference Help

Abstract


The basic reaction mechanisms for membrane fusion in the trafficking of intracellular membranes and in exocytosis are probably identical. But in contrast to regulated exocytosis, intracellular fusion reactions are referred to as 'constitutive' as no final Ca2+-dependent triggering step has been observed. Although transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in the cell depends on Ca2+, as does endosome fusion and assembly of the nuclear envelope, it is unclear whether Ca2+ triggers these events. Membrane fusion involves several subreactions: priming, tethering and docking. Proteins that are needed for fusion include p115, SNAPs, NSF, SNAREs and small GTPases, which operate in these early reactions, but the machinery that catalyses the final mixing of biological membranes is still unknown. Here we show that Ca2+ is released from the vacuolar lumen following completion of the docking step. We have identified calmodulin as the putative Ca2+ sensor and as the first component required in the post-docking phase of vacuole fusion. Calmodulin binds tightly to vacuoles upon Ca2+ release. Unlike synaptotagmin or syncollin in exocytosis, calmodulin does not act as a fusion clamp but actively promotes bilayer mixing. Hence, activation of SNAREs is not sufficient to drive bilayer mixing between physiological membranes. We propose that Ca2+ control of the latest phase of membrane fusion may be a conserved feature, relevant not only for exocytosis, but also for intracellular, 'constitutive' fusion reactions. However, the origin of the Ca2+ signal, its receptor and its mode of processing differ.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Peters C, Mayer A
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference