Phenylalanine identity of yeast tRNAPhe is governed by five nucleotides including residues A73, G20, and the three anticodon nucleotides (Sampson et al., 1989, Science 243, 1363-1366). Analysis of in vitro transcripts derived from yeast tRNAPhe and Escherichia coli tRNAAla bearing these recognition elements shows that phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase is sensitive to additional nucleotides within the acceptor stem. Insertion of G2-C71 has dramatic negative effects in both tRNA frameworks. These effects become compensated by a second-site mutation, the insertion of the wobble G3-U70 pair, which by itself has no effect on phenylalanylation. From a mechanistic point of view, the G2-C71/G3-U70 combination is not a "classical" recognition element since its antideterminant effect is compensated for by a second-site mutation. This enlarges our understanding of tRNA identity that appears not only to be the outcome of a combination of positive and negative signals forming the so-called recognition/identity set but that is also based on the presence of nonrandom combinations of sequences elsewhere in tRNA. These sequences, we name "permissive elements," are retained by evolution so that they do not hinder aminoacylation. Likely, no nucleotide within a tRNA is of random nature but has been selected so that a tRNA can fulfill all its functions efficiently.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|