Site-directed incorporation of the amino acid analogue p-fluoro-phenylalanine (p-F-Phe) was achieved in Escherichia coli. A yeast suppressor tRNA(Phe)amber/phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase pair was expressed in an analogue-resistant E. coli strain to direct analogue incorporation at a programmed amber stop codon in the DHFR marker protein. The programmed position was translated to 64-75% as p-F-Phe and the remainder as phenylalanine and lysine. Depending on the expression conditions, the p-F-Phe incorporation was 11-21-fold higher at the programmed position than the background incorporation at phenylalanine codons, showing high specificity of analogue incorporation. Protein expression yields of 8-12 mg/L of culture, corresponding to about two thirds of the expression level of the wild-type DHFR protein, are sufficient to provide fluorinated proteins suitable for 19F-NMR spectroscopy and other sample-intensive methods. The use of a nonessential "21st" tRNA/synthetase pair will permit incorporation of a wide range of analogues, once the synthetase specificity has been modified accordingly.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|