The cyclophilins and FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) bind to cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin and mediate their immunosuppressive and toxic effects, but the physiological functions of these proteins are largely unknown. Cyclophilins and FKBPs are ubiquitous and highly conserved enzymes that catalyze peptidyl-prolyl isomerization, a rate-limiting step during in vitro protein folding. We have addressed their functions by a genetic approach in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five cyclophilins and three FKBPs previously were identified in yeast. We identified four additional enzymes: Cpr6 and Cpr7, which are homologs of mammalian cyclophilin 40 that have also recently been independently isolated by others, Cpr8, a homolog of the secretory pathway cyclophilin Cpr4, and Fpr4, a homolog of the nucleolar FKBP, Fpr3. None of the eight cyclophilins or four FKBPs were essential. Surprisingly, yeast mutants lacking all 12 immunophilins were viable, and the phenotype of the dodecuplet mutant resulted from simple addition of the subtle phenotypes of each individual mutation. We conclude that cyclophilins and FKBPs do not play an essential general role in protein folding and find little evidence of functional overlap between the different enzymes. We propose that each cyclophilin and FKBP instead regulates a restricted number of unique partner proteins that remain to be identified.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|