Reference: Kimura Y, et al. (1997) Surface of bacteriorhodopsin revealed by high-resolution electron crystallography. Nature 389(6647):206-11

Reference Help

Abstract

Bacteriorhodopsin is a transmembrane protein that uses light energy, absorbed by its chromophore retinal, to pump protons from the cytoplasm of bacteria such as Halobacterium salinarium into the extracellular space. It is made up of seven alpha-helices, and in the bacterium forms natural, two-dimensional crystals called purple membranes. We have analysed these crystals by electron cryo-microscopy to obtain images of bacteriorhodopsin at 3.0 A resolution. The structure covers nearly all 248 amino acids, including loops outside the membrane, and reveals the distribution of charged residues on both sides of the membrane surface. In addition, analysis of the electron-potential map produced by this method allows the determination of the charge status of these residues. On the extracellular side, four glutamate residues surround the entrance to the proton channel, whereas on the cytoplasmic side, four aspartic acids occur in a plane at the boundary of the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. The negative charges produced by these aspartate residues is encircled by areas of positive charge that may facilitate accumulation and lateral movement of protons on this surface.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Kimura Y, Vassylyev DG, Miyazawa A, Kidera A, Matsushima M, Mitsuoka K, Murata K, Hirai T, Fujiyoshi Y
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference