In yeast glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 is essential for synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycerol and is osmotically regulated via the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG1) kinase pathway. Homologous protein kinases, p38, and stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) are hyperosmotically activated in some mammalian cell lines and complement HOG1 in yeast. In the present study we asked whether p38 or SAPK/JNK signal synthesis of the osmoprotectant sorbitol in rabbit renal medullary cells (PAP-HT25), analogous to the glycerol system in yeast. Sorbitol synthesis is catalyzed by aldose reductase (AR). Hyperosmolality increases AR transcription through an osmotic response element (ORE) in the 5'-flanking region of the AR gene, resulting in elevated sorbitol. We tested if AR-ORE is targeted by p38 or SAPK/JNK pathways in PAP-HT25 cells. Hyperosmolality (adding 150 mM NaCl) strongly induces phosphorylation of p38 and of c-Jun, a specific target of SAPK/JNK. Transient lipofection of a dominant negative mutant of SAPK kinase, SEK1-AL, into PAP-HT25 cells specifically inhibits hyperosmotically induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Transient lipofection of a dominant negative p38 kinase mutant, MKK3-AL, into PAP-HT25 cells specifically suppresses hyperosmotic induction of p38 phosphorylation. We cotransfected either one of these mutants or their empty vector with an AR-ORE luciferase reporter construct and compared the hyperosmotically induced increase in luciferase activity with that in cells lipofected with only the AR-ORE luciferase construct. Hyperosmolality increased luciferase activity equally (5-7-fold) under all conditions. We conclude that hyperosmolality induces p38 and SAPK/JNK cascades in mammalian renal cells, analogous to inducing the HOG1 cascade in yeast. However, activation of p38 or SAPK/JNK pathways is not necessary for transcriptional regulation of AR through the ORE. This finding stands in contrast to the requirement for the HOG1 pathway for hyperosmotically induced activation of yeast GPD1.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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