The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway, and the p38 pathway are three major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades known to participate in the regulation of cellular responses to a variety of extracellular signals. Upstream regulatory components of these kinase cascades, the MAPK/ERK kinase kinases (MEKK), have been described in several systems. We have isolated a cDNA encoding human MEKK3. Transfected MEKK3 has the ability to activate both SAPK and ERK pathways, but does not induce p38 activity, in agreement with a previous report on murine MEKK3 (Blank, J. L., Gerwins, P., Elliott, E. M., Sather, S., and Johnson, G. L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 5361-5368). We now demonstrate that MEKK3 activates SEK and MEK, the known kinases targeting SAPK and ERK, respectively. Utilizing an estrogen ligand-activated MEKK3 derivative, we furthermore demonstrate that MEKK3 regulates the SAPK and the ERK pathway directly. Consistent with the fact that several SAPK-inducing agents activate the transcription factor NFkappaB, we now show that MEKK3 also enhances transcription from an NFkappaB-dependent reporter gene in cotransfection assays. The ability of MEKK3 to simultaneously activate the SAPK and ERK pathways is remarkable, given that they have divergent roles in cellular homeostasis.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|