Calcineurin, or PP2B, plays a critical role in mediating Ca2+-dependent signaling in many cell types. In yeast cells, this highly conserved protein phosphatase regulates aspects of ion homeostasis and cell wall synthesis. We show that calcineurin mutants are sensitive to high concentrations of Mn2+ and identify two genes, CCC1 and HUM1, that, at high dosages, increase the Mn2+ tolerance of calcineurin mutants. CCC1 was previously identified by complementation of a Ca2+-sensitive (csg1) mutant. HUM1 (for "high copy number undoes manganese") is a novel gene whose predicted protein product shows similarity to mammalian Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. hum1 mutations confer Mn2+ sensitivity in some genetic backgrounds and exacerbate the Mn2+ sensitivity of calcineurin mutants. Furthermore, disruption of HUM1 in a calcineurin mutant strain results in a Ca2+-sensitive phenotype. We investigated the effect of disrupting HUM1 in other strains with defects in Ca2+ homeostasis. The Ca2+ sensitivity of pmc1 mutants, which lack a P-type ATPase presumed to transport Ca2+ into the vacuole, is exacerbated in a hum1 mutant strain background. Also, the Ca2+ content of hum1 pmc1 cells is less than that of pmc1 cells. In contrast, the Ca2+ sensitivity of vph1 mutants, which are specifically defective in vacuolar acidification, is not significantly altered by disruption of Hum1p function. These genetic interactions suggest that Hum1p may participate in vacuolar Ca2+/H+ exchange. Therefore, we prepared vacuolar membrane vesicles from wild-type and hum1 cells and compared their Ca2+ transport properties. Vacuolar membrane vesicles from hum1 mutants lack all Ca2+/H+ antiport activity, demonstrating that Hum1p catalyzes the exchange of Ca2+ for H+ across the yeast vacuolar membrane.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|