Recent studies showed that deletion of ISC1, the yeast homologue of the mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase, resulted in an increased sensitivity to hydroxyurea (HU). This raised an intriguing question as to whether sphingolipids are involved in pathways initiated by HU. In this study, we show that HU treatment led to a significant increase in Isc1 activity. Analysis of sphingolipid deletion mutants and pharmacological analysis pointed to a role for ceramide in mediating HU resistance. Lipid analysis revealed that HU induced increases in phytoceramides in WT cells but not in isc1? cells. To probe functions of specific ceramides, we developed an approach to supplement the medium with fatty acids. Oleate (C18:1) was the only fatty acid protecting isc1? cells from HU toxicity in a ceramide-dependent manner. Because phytoceramide activates protein phosphatases in yeast, we evaluated the role of CDC55, the regulatory subunit of ceramide-activated protein phosphatase PP2A. Overexpression of CDC55 overcame the sensitivity to HU in isc1? cells. However, addition of oleate did not protect the isc1?,cdc55? double mutant from HU toxicity. These results demonstrate that HU launches a lipid pathway mediated by a specific sphingolipid, C18:1-phytoceramide, produced by Isc1, which provides protection from HU by modulating Swe1 levels through the PP2A subunit Cdc55.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|