Global gene expression was analyzed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae T2 cells grown in the presence of hardwood spent sulphite liquor (HW SSL) and each of the three main inhibitors in HW SSL, acetic acid, hydroxymethyfurfural (HMF) and furfural, using a S. cerevisiae DNA oligonucleotide microarray. The objective was to compare the gene expression profiles of T2 cells in response to the individual inhibitors against that elicited in response to HW SSL. Acetic acid mainly affected the expression of genes related to the uptake systems of the yeast as well as energy generation and metabolism. Furfural and HMF mainly affected the transcription of genes involved in the redox balance of the cell. On the other hand, the effect of HW SSL on S. cerevisiae T2 cells was distinct and considerably more diverse as compared to the effect of individual inhibitors found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This is not surprising as HW SSL contains a complex mixture of inhibitors which may act synergistically. HW SSL elicited significant changes in expression of genes involved in diverse and multiple effects on several aspects of the cellular structure and function. A notable response to HW SSL was decreased expression of the ribosomal protein genes in T2 cells. In addition, HW SSL decreased the expression of genes functioning in the synthesis and transport of proteins as well as metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and vacuolar proteins. Furthermore, the expression of genes involved in multidrug resistance, iron transport and pheromone response was increased, suggesting that T2 cells grown in the presence of HW SSL may have activated pheromone response and/or activated pleiotropic drug response. Some of the largest changes in gene expression were observed in the presence of HW SSL and the affected genes are involved in mating, iron transport, stress response and phospholipid metabolism. A total of 59 out of the 400 genes differentially expressed in the presence of HW SSL, acetic acid, HMF and furfural, belonged to the category of poorly characterized genes. The results indicate that transcriptional responses to individual lignocellulosic inhibitors gave a different picture and may not be representative of how the cells would respond to the presence of all the inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates such as HW SSL.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|