Currently, there are few studies concerning the function of heavy metal ATPase 2 (HMA2), particularly in monocotyledons, and the potential application of this protein in biofortification and phytoremediation. Thus, we isolated and characterized the TaHMA2 gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our results indicate that TaHMA2 is localized to the plasma membrane and stably expressed, except in the nodes, which showed relatively high expression. Zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) resistance was observed in TaHMA2-transformed yeast. The over-expression of TaHMA2 increased the elongation and decreased the seed-setting rate in rice (Oryza sativa L.), but not Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) or wheat. TaHMA2 over-expression also improved root-shoot Zn/Cd translocation, especially in rice. The seeds of transgenic rice and wheat, not tobacco, showed decreased Zn concentrations. The Zn concentration was decreased in all parts of the transgenic rice seeds, but was decreased only in the ventral endosperm of wheat, which showed an increased Zn concentration in the embryo and aleurone. The over-expression of TaHMA2 improved plant tolerance under moderate Zn stress and Zn deficiency, but Zn and Cd resistance decreased under high levels of Zn and Cd stress, respectively. The Cd concentration in transgenic rice seedlings was dramatically increased under Zn deficiency. Thus, over-expression of TaHMA2 showed a more obvious phenotype in monocotyledons than in dicotyledons. These findings provide important information for TaHMA2, and more efforts should be made in the future to characterize the reduced Zn concentration in TaHMA2 transgenic grains and the diversity of TaHMA2 substrate specificity.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|