Autophagy requires ubiquitin-like Atg8 and Atg12 conjugation systems, where Atg7 has a critical role as the sole E1 enzyme. Although Atg7 recognizes two distinct E2s, Atg3 and Atg10, it is not understood how Atg7 correctly loads these E2s with their cognate ubiquitin-like proteins, Atg8 and Atg12. Here, we report the crystal structures of the N-terminal domain of Atg7 bound to Atg10 or Atg3 of thermotolerant yeast and plant homologs. The observed Atg7-Atg10 and Atg7-Atg3 interactions, which resemble each other but are quite distinct from the canonical E1-E2 interaction, makes Atg7 suitable for transferring Atg12 to Atg10 and Atg8 to Atg3 by a trans mechanism. Notably, in vitro experiments showed that Atg7 loads Atg3 and Atg10 with Atg8 and Atg12 in a nonspecific manner, which suggests that cognate conjugate formation in vivo is not an intrinsic quality of Atg7.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|