While affinity reagents are valuable tools for monitoring protein phosphorylation and studying signaling events in cells, generating them through immunization of animals with phosphopeptides is expensive, laborious, and time-consuming. An attractive alternative is to use protein evolution techniques and isolate new anti-phosphopeptide binding specificities from a library of variants of a phosphopeptide-binding domain. To explore this strategy, we attempted to display on the surface of bacteriophage M13 the N-terminal Forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain of yeast Rad53p, which is a naturally occurring phosphothreonine (pT)-binding domain, and found it to be nonfunctional due to misfolding in the bacterial periplasm. To overcome this limitation, we constructed a library of FHA1 variants by mutagenic PCR and isolated functional variants after three rounds of affinity selection with its pT peptide ligand. A hydrophobic residue at position 34 in the ?1 strand was discovered to be essential for phage display of a functional FHA1 domain. Additionally, by heating the phage library to 50?C prior to affinity selection with its cognate pT peptide, we identified a variant (G2) that was ~8?C more thermally stable than the wild-type domain. Using G2 as a scaffold, we constructed phage-displayed libraries of FHA1 variants and affinity selected for variants that bound selectively to five pT peptides. These reagents are renewable and have high protein yields (~20-25mg/L), when expressed in Escherichia coli. Thus, we have changed the specificity of the FHA1 domain and demonstrated that engineering phosphopeptide-binding domains is an attractive avenue for generating new anti-phosphopeptide binding specificities in vitro by phage display.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|