Exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is controlled by nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In animals, NPCs are anchored by the nuclear lamina, which ensures their even distribution and proper organization of chromosomes. Fungi do not possess a lamina and how they arrange their chromosomes and NPCs is unknown. Here, we show that motor-driven motility of NPCs organizes the fungal nucleus. In Ustilago maydis, Aspergillus nidulans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fluorescently labeled NPCs showed ATP-dependent movements at approximately 1.0 microm/s. In S. cerevisiae and U. maydis, NPC motility prevented NPCs from clustering. In budding yeast, NPC motility required F-actin, whereas in U. maydis, microtubules, kinesin-1, and dynein drove pore movements. In the latter, pore clustering resulted in chromatin organization defects and led to a significant reduction in both import and export of GFP reporter proteins. This suggests that fungi constantly rearrange their NPCs and corresponding chromosomes to ensure efficient nuclear transport and thereby overcome the need for a structural lamina.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|