We have shown previously that the function of Ycf1p, yeast ortholog of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), is regulated by yeast casein kinase 2a (Cka1p) via phosphorylation at Ser251. In this study, we explored whether casein kinase 2a (CK2a), the human homolog of Cka1p, regulates MRP1 by phosphorylation at the semiconserved site Thr249. Knockdown of CK2a in MCF7-derived cells expressing MRP1 [MRP1 CK2a(-)] resulted in increased doxorubicin sensitivity. MRP1-dependent transport of leukotriene C(4) and estradiol-17?-d-glucuronide into vesicles derived from MRP1 CK2a(-) cells was decreased compared with MRP1 vesicles. Moreover, mutation of Thr249 to alanine (MRP1-T249A) also resulted in decreased MRP1-dependent transport, whereas a phosphomimicking mutation (MRP1-T249E) led to dramatic increase in MRP1-dependent transport. Studies in tissue culture confirmed these findings, showing increased intracellular doxorubicin accumulation in MRP1 CK2a(-) and MRP1-T249A cells compared with MRP1 cells. Inhibition of CK2 kinase by 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole resulted in increased doxorubicin accumulation in MRP1 cells, but not in MRP1 CK2a(-), MRP1-T249A, or MRP1-T249E cells, suggesting that CK2a regulates MRP1 function via phosphorylation of Thr249. Indeed, CK2a and MRP1 interact physically, and recombinant CK2 phosphorylates MRP1-derived peptide in vitro in a Thr249-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of CK2a results in decreased phosphorylation at MRP1-Thr249. The role of CK2 in regulating MRP1 was confirmed in other cancer cell lines where CK2 inhibition decreased MRP1-mediated efflux of doxorubicin and increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity. This study supports a model in which CK2a potentiates MRP1 function via direct phosphorylation of Thr249.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|