Arabidopsis thaliana MTP1 is a vacuolar membrane Zn(2+)/H(+) antiporter of the cation diffusion facilitator family. Here we present a structure-function analysis of AtMTP1-mediated transport and its remarkable Zn(2+) selectivity by functional complementation tests of more than 50 mutant variants in metal-sensitive yeast strains. This was combined with homology modeling of AtMTP1 based on the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli broad-specificity divalent cation transporter YiiP. The Zn(2+)-binding sites of EcYiiP in the cytoplasmic C-terminus, and the pore formed by transmembrane helices TM2 and TM5, are conserved in AtMTP1. Although absent in EcYiiP, Cys31 and Cys36 in the extended N-terminal cytosolic domain of AtMTP1 are necessary for complementation of a Zn-sensitive yeast strain. On the cytosolic side of the active Zn(2+)-binding site inside the transmembrane pore, Ala substitution of either Asn258 in TM5 or Ser101 in TM2 non-selectively enhanced the metal tolerance conferred by AtMTP1. Modeling predicts that these residues obstruct the movement of cytosolic Zn(2+) into the intra-membrane Zn(2+)-binding site of AtMTP1. A conformational change in the immediately preceding His-rich cytosolic loop may displace Asn258 and permit Zn(2+) entry into the pore. This would allow dynamic coupling of Zn(2+) transport to the His-rich loop, thus acting as selectivity filter or sensor of cytoplasmic Zn(2+) levels. Individual mutations at diverse sites within AtMTP1 conferred Co and Cd tolerance in yeast, and included deletions in N-terminal and His-rich intra-molecular cytosolic domains, and mutations of single residues flanking the transmembrane pore or participating in intra- or inter-molecular domain interactions, all of which are not conserved in the non-selective EcYiiP.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|