Following our previous finding that the sulfhydryl-oxidising chemical diamide induced a marked elevation of cellular Al(3+) (Wu et al., Int J Mol Sci, 12:8119-8132, 2011), a further investigation into the underlying molecular mechanism was carried out, using the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of non-toxic dose of diamide (0.8 mM) and a mild dose of aluminium sulphate (Al(3+)) (0.4 mM) were determined prior to the screening of gene deletion mutants. A total of 81 deletion mutants were selected for this study according to the available screening data against Al(3+) only (Kakimoto et al., BioMetals, 18: 467-474, 2005) and diamide only (Thorpe et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101: 6564-6569, 2004). On the basis of our screening data and the cluster analysis, a cluster containing the gene deletions (rpe1?, sec72?, pdr5? and ric1?) was found to be specifically sensitive to the mixture of diamide and Al(3+). However gnp1?, mch5? and ccc1? mutants were resistant. Dithiothreitol (DTT) and ascorbate markedly reversed the diamide-induced Al(3+) toxicity. Inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry demonstrated that DTT reduced the intracellular Al(3+) content in diamide/Al(3+)-treated yeast cells six-fold compared to the non-DTT controls. These data together revealed that the pleiotropic drug resistance transporter (Pdr5p) and vacuolar/vesicular transport-related proteins (Ric1p and Sec72p) are the targets of diamide. A dysfunctional membrane-bound Pdr5p terminates the detoxification pathway for Al(3+) at the final step, leading to intracellular Al(3+) accumulation and hence toxicity. As Al(3+) toxicity has been a problem in agriculture and human health, this study has provided a significant step forward in understanding Al(3+) toxicity.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|