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Reference: Sweeny EA, et al. (2011) Purification of hsp104, a protein disaggregase.LID - 10.3791/3190 [doi]LID - 3190 [pii] J Vis Exp (55)

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Abstract

Hsp104 is a hexameric AAA+ protein(1) from yeast, which couples ATP hydrolysis to protein disaggregation(2-10) (Fig. 1). This activity imparts two key selective advantages. First, renaturation of disordered aggregates by Hsp104 empowers yeast survival after various protein-misfolding stresses, including heat shock(3,5,11,12). Second, remodeling of cross-beta amyloid fibrils by Hsp104 enables yeast to exploit myriad prions (infectious amyloids) as a reservoir of beneficial and heritable phenotypic variation(13-22). Remarkably, Hsp104 directly remodels preamyloid oligomers and amyloid fibrils, including those comprised of the yeast prion proteins Sup35 and Ure2(23-30). This amyloid-remodeling functionality is a specialized facet of yeast Hsp104. The E. coli orthologue, ClpB, fails to remodel preamyloid oligomers or amyloid fibrils(26,31,32). Hsp104 orthologues are found in all kingdoms of life except, perplexingly, animals. Indeed, whether animal cells possess any enzymatic system that couples protein disaggregation to renaturation (rather than degradation) remains unknown(33-35). Thus, we and others have proposed that Hsp104 might be developed as a therapeutic agent for various neurodegenerative diseases connected with the misfolding of specific proteins into toxic preamyloid oligomers and amyloid fibrils(4,7,23,36-38). There are no treatments that directly target the aggregated species associated with these diseases. Yet, Hsp104 dissolves toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils composed of alpha-synuclein, which are connected with Parkinson's Disease(23) as well as amyloid forms of PrP(39). Importantly, Hsp104 reduces protein aggregation and ameliorates neurodegeneration in rodent models of Parkinson's Disease(23) and Huntington's disease(38). Ideally, to optimize therapy and minimize side effects, Hsp104 would be engineered and potentiated to selectively remodel specific aggregates central to the disease in question(4,7). However, the limited structural and mechanistic understanding of how Hsp104 disaggregates such a diverse repertoire of aggregated structures and unrelated proteins frustrates these endeavors(30,40-42). To understand the structure and mechanism of Hsp104, it is essential to study the pure protein and reconstitute its disaggregase activity with minimal components. Hsp104 is a 102kDa protein with a pI of ~5.3, which hexamerizes in the presence of ADP or ATP, or at high protein concentrations in the absence of nucleotide(43-46). Here, we describe an optimized protocol for the purification of highly active, stable Hsp104 from E. coli. The use of E. coli allows simplified large-scale production and our method can be performed quickly and reliably for numerous Hsp104 variants. Our protocol increases Hsp104 purity and simplifies His(6;)-tag removal compared to a previous purification method from E. coli(47). Moreover, our protocol is more facile and convenient than two more recent protocols(26,48).

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Sweeny EA, Desantis ME, Shorter J
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