Reference: Yogev O, et al. (2011) Fumarase: a paradigm of dual targeting and dual localized functions. FEBS J 278(22):4230-42

Reference Help

Abstract

The enzyme fumarase is a conserved protein in all organisms with regard to its sequence, structure and function. This enzyme participates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria which is essential for cellular respiration in eukaryotes. However, a common theme conserved from yeast to humans is the existence of a cytosolic form of fumarase; hence this protein is dual localized. We have coined identical (or nearly identical) proteins situated in different subcellular locations 'echoforms' or 'echoproteins'. Fumarase was the first example of a dual localized protein whose mechanism of distribution was found to be based on a single translation product. Consequently, fumarase has become a paradigm for three unique eukaryotic cellular phenomena related to protein dual localization: (a) distribution between mitochondria and the cytoplasm involves reverse translocation; (b) targeting to mitochondria involves translation coupled import; and (c) there are two echoforms possessing distinct functions in the respective subcellular compartments. Here we describe and discuss these fumarase related phenomena and in addition point out approaches for studying dual function of distributed proteins, in particular compartment-specific depletion. In the case of fumarase, the cytoplasmic function was only recently discovered; the enzyme was found to participate in the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks. Strikingly, upon DNA damage the protein is transported from the cytosol to the nucleus, where by virtue of its enzymatic activity it participates in the DNA damage response.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Yogev O, Naamati A, Pines O
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference