Take our Survey

Reference: Nett JE, et al. (2011) Interface of Candida albicans biofilm matrix-associated drug resistance and cell wall integrity regulation. Eukaryot Cell 10(12):1660-9

Reference Help

Abstract

Candida albicans frequently infects medical devices by growing as a biofilm, i.e., a community of adherent organisms entrenched in an extracellular matrix. During biofilm growth, Candida spp. acquire the ability to resist high concentrations of antifungal drugs. One recently recognized biofilm resistance mechanism involves drug sequestration by matrix ?-1,3 glucan. Using a candidate gene approach, we investigated potential C. albicans ?-1,3-glucan regulators, based on their homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including SMI1 and protein kinase C (PKC) pathway components. We identified a role for the SMI1 in biofilm matrix glucan production and development of the associated drug resistance phenotype. This pathway appears to act through transcription factor Rlmp and glucan synthase Fks1p. The phenotypes of these mutant biofilms mimicked those of the smi1?/smi1? biofilm, and overexpression of FKS1 in the smi1?/smi1? mutant restored the biofilm resistant phenotype. However, control of this pathway is distinct from that of the upstream PKC pathway because the pkc1?/pkc1?, bck1?/bck1?, mkk2?/mkk2?, and mkc1?/mkc1? biofilms retained the resistant phenotype of the parent strain. In addition, resistance to cell-perturbing agents and gene expression data do not support a significant role for the cell wall integrity pathway during the biofilm formation. Here we show that Smi1p functions in conjunction with Rlm1p and Fks1p to produce drug-sequestering biofilm ?-glucan. Our work provides new insight into how the C. albicans biofilm matrix production and drug resistance pathways intersect with the planktonic cell wall integrity pathway. This novel connection helps explain how pathogens in a multicellular biofilm community are protected from anti-infective therapy.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Authors
Nett JE, Sanchez H, Cain MT, Ross KM, Andes DR
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference