The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two forms of cytochrome c, iso-1-cytochrome c and iso-2-cytochrome c, encoded by the genes CYC1 and CYC7, respectively. The amino acid sequences of these two isozymes are approximately 80% identical. Cyc3- mutants lack both holocytochromes c, because of a deficiency of cytochrome c heme lyase, the enzyme catalyzing covalent attachment of the heme group to apocytochrome c. A deficiency of heme lyase also prevents import into mitochondria. Surprisingly, apo-iso-1-cytochrome c is absent in cyc3- strains, although apo-iso-2-cytochrome c is present at approximately the same level at which holo-iso-2-cytochrome c is found in CYC3+ strains. The lack of apo-iso-1-cytochrome c is not due to a deficiency of either transcription or translation, but to rapid degradation of the protein. Apocytochromes c encoded by composite cytochrome c genes composed of the central portion of iso-2-cytochrome c flanked by amino and carboxyl regions of iso-1-cytochrome c exhibit increased stability compared with apo-iso-1-cytochrome c. A region encompassing no more than four amino acid differences between iso-1- and iso-2-cytochromes c is sufficient to partially stabilize the protein. In contrast to what is observed in vivo with the apo forms, the holo forms of the composite isocytochromes c are even less stable to thermal denaturation than iso-1-cytochrome c or iso-2-cytochrome c. Either a small region of the sequence of apo-iso-1-cytochrome c is involved in degradation of the protein, or the corresponding region in apo-iso-2-cytochrome c is preventing degradation. The differential stability of the two isocytochromes c may be part of a regulatory process that increases the proportion of iso-2-cytochrome c under certain physiological conditions.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|