Reference: Palacios DS, et al. (2011) Organic Synthesis Toward Small-Molecule Probes and Drugs Special Feature: Synthesis-enabled functional group deletions reveal key underpinnings of amphotericin B ion channel and antifungal activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(17):6733-8

Reference Help

Abstract

Amphotericin B is the archetype for small molecules that form transmembrane ion channels. However, despite extensive study for more than five decades, even the most basic features of this channel structure and its contributions to the antifungal activities of this natural product have remained unclear. We herein report that a powerful series of functional group-deficient probes have revealed many key underpinnings of the ion channel and antifungal activities of amphotericin B. Specifically, in stark contrast to two leading models, polar interactions between mycosamine and carboxylic acid appendages on neighboring amphotericin B molecules are not required for ion channel formation, nor are these functional groups required for binding to phospholipid bilayers. Alternatively, consistent with a previously unconfirmed third hypothesis, the mycosamine sugar is strictly required for promoting a direct binding interaction between amphotericin B and ergosterol. The same is true for cholesterol. Synthetically deleting this appendage also completely abolishes ion channel and antifungal activities. All of these results are consistent with the conclusion that a mycosamine-mediated direct binding interaction between amphotericin B and ergosterol is required for both forming ion channels and killing yeast cells. The enhanced understanding of amphotericin B function derived from these synthesis-enabled studies has helped set the stage for the more effective harnessing of the remarkable ion channel-forming capacity of this prototypical small molecule natural product.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Palacios DS, Dailey I, Siebert DM, Wilcock BC, Burke MD
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference