Reference: Limbo O, et al. (2011) Mre11 Nuclease Activity and Ctp1 Regulate Chk1 Activation by Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM Checkpoint Kinases at Double-Strand Breaks. Mol Cell Biol 31(3):573-83

Reference Help

Abstract

Rad3, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of human ATR and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mec1, activates the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Rad3(ATR/Mec1) associates with Replication protein A (RPA), which binds single-strand DNA overhangs formed by DSB resection. In humans and both yeasts, DSBs are initially detected and processed by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1(Xrs2) (MRN) nucleolytic protein complex in association with the Tel1(ATM) checkpoint kinase and the Ctp1(CtIP/Sae2) DNA-end processing factor; however, in budding yeast, neither Mre11 nuclease activity or Sae2 are required for Mec1 signaling at irreparable DSBs. Here, we investigate the relationship between DNA end processing and the DSB checkpoint response in fission yeast, and we report that Mre11 nuclease activity and Ctp1 are critical for efficient Rad3-to-Chk1 signaling. Moreover, deleting Ctp1 reveals a Tel1-to-Chk1 signaling pathway that bypasses Rad3. This pathway requires Mre11 nuclease activity, the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) checkpoint clamp complex, and Crb2 checkpoint mediator. Ctp1 negatively regulates this pathway by controlling MRN residency at DSBs. A Tel1-to-Chk1 checkpoint pathway acting at unresected DSBs provides a mechanism for coupling Chk1 activation to the initial detection of DSBs and suggests that ATM may activate Chk1 by both direct and indirect mechanisms in mammalian cells.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Limbo O, Porter-Goff ME, Rhind N, Russell P
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference