Take our Survey

Reference: Pan T and Coleman JE (1990) GAL4 transcription factor is not a "zinc finger" but forms a Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(6):2077-81

Reference Help

Abstract

The DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor GAL4, consisting of the 62 N-terminal residues and denoted GAL4(62*), contains a Cys-Xaa2-Cys-Xaa6-Cys-Xaa6-Cys-Xaa2-Cys-Xaa6+ ++-Cys motif, which has been shown previously to bind two Zn(II) or Cd(II) ions. Binding of Zn(II) or Cd(II) is essential for the recognition by GAL4 of the specific palindromic DNA sequence to which it binds upstream of genes for galactose-metabolizing enzymes, the UASG sequence. On the basis of the 113Cd NMR chemical shifts of the two bound 113Cd(II) ions, we propose a binuclear cluster model for this Zn(II)-binding subdomain. 1H-113Cd heteronuclear multiple-quantum NMR spectroscopy and phase-sensitive double-quantum filtered 1H correlation spectroscopy of the 112Cd(II)- and 113Cd(II)-substituted GAL4(62*) derivatives provide direct evidence that the two bound 113Cd(II) ions are coordinated only by the six cysteine residues, two of which form bridging ligands between the two 113Cd(II) ions. The latter can be identified from the pattern of 1H-113Cd J coupling. Thus a binuclear metal ion cluster rather than a "zinc finger" is formed by the six cysteine residues of the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. This model can be directly applied to eight other fungal transcription factors which have been shown to contain similarly spaced Cys6 clusters. 1H NMR spectra of apo-GAL4(62*) suggest conformational fluctuation of the metal-binding subdomain upon removal of Zn(II) or Cd(II). Both Cd(II)2- and Zn(II)2-containing species of GAL4 can be formed, and the similar 1H NMR spectra suggest similar conformations.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Authors
Pan T, Coleman JE
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference