The macrolactone archazolid is a novel, highly specific V-ATPase inhibitor with an IC50 value in the low nanomolar range. The binding site of archazolid is presumed to overlap with the binding site of the established plecomacrolide V-ATPase inhibitors bafilomycin and concanamycin in subunit c of the membrane-integral VO complex. Using a semi-synthetic derivative of archazolid for photoaffinity labeling of the V1VO holoenzyme we confirmed binding of archazolid to the VO subunit c. For the plecomacrolide binding site a model has been published based on mutagenesis studies of the c subunit of Neurospora crassa, revealing 11 amino acids that are part of the binding pocket at the interface of two adjacent c subunits (Bowman et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 31885-31893). To investigate the contribution of these amino acids to the binding of archazolid, we established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations that in N. crassa had changed the IC50 value for bafilomycin 10-fold or more, and showed that out of the amino acids forming the plecomacrolide binding pocket only one amino acid (tyrosine 142) contributes to the binding of archazolid. Using a fluorescent derivative of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, we found that the binding site for archazolid comprises the essential glutamate within helix 4 of subunit c. In conclusion the archazolid binding site resides within the equatorial region of the VO rotor subunit c. This hypothesis was supported by an additional subset of mutations within helix 4 which revealed that leucine 144 plays a role in archazolid binding.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|