DNA-binding proteins survey genomes for targets using facilitated diffusion, which typically includes a one-dimensional (1D) scanning component for sampling local regions. Eukaryotic proteins must accomplish this task while navigating through chromatin. Yet it is unknown whether nucleosomes disrupt 1D scanning or eukaryotic DNA-binding factors can circumnavigate nucleosomes without falling off DNA. Here we use single-molecule microscopy in conjunction with nanofabricated curtains of DNA to show that the postreplicative mismatch repair protein complex Mlh1-Pms1 diffuses in 1D along DNA via a hopping/stepping mechanism and readily bypasses nucleosomes. This is the first experimental demonstration that a passively diffusing protein can traverse stationary obstacles. In contrast, Msh2-Msh6, a mismatch repair protein complex that slides while maintaining continuous contact with DNA, experiences a boundary upon encountering nucleosomes. These differences reveal important mechanistic constraints affecting intranuclear trafficking of DNA-binding proteins.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|