The autophagy-related protein (Atg) 8 conjugation system is essential for the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes during autophagy, a bulk degradation process conserved among most eukaryotes. It is also important in yeast for recognizing target vacuolar enzymes through the receptor protein Atg19 during the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a selective type of autophagy. Atg3 is an E2-like enzyme that conjugates Atg8 with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Here, we show that Atg3 directly interacts with Atg8 through the WEDL sequence, which is distinct from canonical interaction between E2 and ubiquitin-like modifiers. Moreover, NMR experiments suggest that the mode of interaction between Atg8 and Atg3 is quite similar to that between Atg8/LC3 and the Atg8-family interacting motif (AIM) conserved in autophagic receptors, such as Atg19 and p62. Thus, the WEDL sequence in Atg3 is a canonical AIM. In vitro analyses showed that Atg3 AIM is crucial for the transfer of Atg8 from the Atg8~Atg3 thioester intermediate to PE, but not for the formation of the intermediate. Intriguingly, in vivo experiments showed that it is necessary for the Cvt pathway, but not for starvation-induced autophagy. Atg3 AIM attenuated the inhibitory effect of Atg19 on Atg8 lipidation in vitro, suggesting that Atg3 AIM may be important for the lipidation of Atg19-bound Atg8 during the Cvt pathway.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|