The galactose uptake mechanism in yeast is a well-studied regulatory network. The regulatory players in the galactose regulatory mechanism (GAL system) are conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis, but the molecular mechanisms that occur as a result of the molecular interactions between them are different. The key differences in the GAL system of K. lactis relative to that of S. cerevisiae are: (a) the autoregulation of KlGAL4; (b) the dual role of KlGal1p as a metabolizing enzyme as well as a galactose-sensing protein; (c) the shuttling of KlGal1p between nucleus and cytoplasm; and (d) the nuclear confinement of KlGal80p. A steady-state model was used to elucidate the roles of these molecular mechanisms in the transcriptional response of the GAL system. The steady-state results were validated experimentally using measurements of beta-galactosidase to represent the expression for genes having two binding sites. The results showed that the autoregulation of the synthesis of activator KlGal4p is responsible for the leaky expression of GAL genes, even at high glucose concentrations. Furthermore, GAL gene expression in K. lactis shows low expression levels because of the limiting function of the bifunctional protein KlGal1p towards the induction process in order to cope with the need for the metabolism of lactose/galactose. The steady-state model of the GAL system of K. lactis provides an opportunity to compare with the design prevailing in S. cerevisiae. The comparison indicates that the existence of a protein, Gal3p, dedicated to the sensing of galactose in S. cerevisiae as a result of genome duplication has resulted in a system which metabolizes galactose efficiently.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|