This paper analyses yeast diversity and dynamics during the production of Asturian cider. Yeasts were isolated from apple juice and at different stages of fermentation in a cellar in Villaviciosa during two Asturian cider-apple harvests. The species identified by ITS-RFLP corresponded to Hanseniaspora valbyensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus/Saccharomyces pastorianus/Saccharomyces kudriavzevii/Saccharomyces mikatae. The species C. parapsilosis is reported here for the first time in cider. The analysis of Saccharomyces mtDNA patterns showed great diversity, sequential substitution and the presence of a small number of yeast patterns (up to 8), present in both harvests. Killer (patterns nos. 22' and 47), sensitive (patterns nos. 12, 15, 33 and 61) and neutral phenotypes were found among the S. cerevisiae isolates. The detection of beta-glucosidase activity, with arbutin as the sole carbon source, allowed two S. cerevisiae strains (patterns nos. 3' and 19') to be differentiated by means of this enzymatic activity. Yeast strains producing the killer toxin or with beta-glucosidase activity are reported for the first time in autochthonous cider yeasts.CI - 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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