The use of DNA microarrays to identify nucleotide variation is almost 20 years old. A variety of improvements in probe design and experimental conditions have brought this technology to the point that single-nucleotide differences can be efficiently detected in unmixed samples, although developing reliable methods for detection of mixed sequences (e.g., heterozygotes) remains challenging. Surprisingly, a comprehensive study of the probe design parameters and experimental conditions that optimize discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has yet to be reported, so the limits of this technology remain uncertain. By targeting 24,549 SNPs that differ between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we studied the effect of SNPs on hybridization efficiency to DNA microarray probes of different lengths under different hybridization conditions. We found that the critical parameter for optimization of sequence discrimination is the relationship between probe melting temperature (T(m)) and the temperature at which the hybridization reaction is performed. This relationship can be exploited through the design of microarrays containing probes of equal T(m) by varying the length of probes. We demonstrate using such a microarray that we detect >90% homozygous SNPs and >80% heterozygous SNPs using the SNPScanner algorithm. The optimized design and experimental parameters determined in this study should guide DNA microarray designs for applications that require sequence discrimination such as mutation detection, genotyping of unmixed and mixed samples, and allele-specific gene expression. Moreover, designing microarray probes with optimized sensitivity to mismatches should increase the accuracy of standard microarray applications such as copy-number variation detection and gene expression analysis.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|