Take our Survey

Reference: Gordan R, et al. (2009) Distinguishing direct versus indirect transcription factor-DNA interactions. Genome Res 19(11):2090-100

Reference Help

Abstract

Transcriptional regulation is largely enacted by transcription factors (TFs) binding DNA. Large numbers of TF binding motifs have been revealed by ChIP-chip experiments followed by computational DNA motif discovery. However, the success of motif discovery algorithms has been limited when applied to sequences bound in vivo (such as those identified by ChIP-chip) because the observed TF-DNA interactions are not necessarily direct: some TFs predominantly associate with DNA indirectly through protein partners, while others exhibit both direct and indirect binding. Here, we present the first method for distinguishing between direct and indirect TF-DNA interactions, integrating in vivo TF binding data, in vivo nucleosome occupancy data, and motifs from in vitro protein binding microarray experiments. When applied to yeast ChIP-chip data, our method reveals that only 48% of the data sets can be readily explained by direct binding of the profiled TF, while 16% can be explained by indirect DNA binding. In the remaining 36%, none of the motifs used in our analysis was able to explain the ChIP-chip data, either because the data were too noisy or because the set of motifs was incomplete. As more in vitro TF DNA binding motifs become available, our method could be used to build a complete catalog of direct and indirect TF-DNA interactions. Our method is not restricted to yeast or to ChIP-chip data, but can be applied in any system for which both in vivo binding data and in vitro DNA binding motifs are available.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Gordan R, Hartemink AJ, Bulyk ML
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference