The Ty1 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is comprised of structural and enzymatic proteins functionally similar to those of retroviruses. Despite overall sequence divergence, certain motifs are highly conserved. We have examined the Ty1 integrase (IN) zinc binding domain (ZBD) by mutating the definitive histidine and cysteine residues and thirteen residues in the intervening (X32) sequence between IN-H22 and IN-C55. Mutation of the zinc-coordinating histidine or cysteine residues reduced transposition by more than 4000-fold and led to IN and reverse transcriptase (RT) instability as well as inefficient proteolytic processing. Alanine substitution of the hydrophobic residues I28, L32, I37 and V45, in the X32 region reduced transposition 85-688-fold. Three of these residues, L32, I37 and V45 are highly conserved among retroviruses, although their effects on integration or viral infectivity have not been characterized. In contrast to the HHCC mutations, all the X32 mutants exhibited stable IN and RT, and protein processing and cDNA production were unaffected. However, GST pull-downs and intragenic complementation analysis of selected transposition-defective X32 mutants revealed decreased IN-IN interactions. Furthermore, virus-like particles (VLP) with in-L32A and in-V45A mutations did not exhibit substantial levels of concerted integration products in vitro. Our results suggest that the histidine/cysteine residues are important for steps in transposition prior to integration while the hydrophobic residues function in IN multimerization.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|