Perturbation of the cytoplasmic protein folding environment by exposure to oxidative stress-inducing As(III)-containing compounds challenges the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here we report on mass spectrometric analysis of As(III)-induced changes in the proteasome's composition in samples prepared by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture, using mammalian cells in which TRP32 (thioredoxin-related protein of 32 kDa; also referred to as TXNL1) was identified as a novel subunit of the 26 S proteasome. Quantitative genetic interaction mapping, using the epistatic miniarray profiling approach, identified a functional connection between TRP32 and the proteasome. Deletion of txl1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of TRP32, results in a slow growth phenotype when combined with deletion of cut8, a gene required for normal proteasome localization. Deletion analysis in vivo, chemical cross-linking, and manipulation of the ATP concentration in vitro during proteasome immunopurification revealed that the C-terminal domain of mammalian TRP32 binds the 19 S regulatory particle in proximity to the proteasome substrate binding site. Thiol modification with polyethylene glycol-maleimide showed disulfide bond formation at the active site of TRP32 in cells exposed to As(III). Pulse-chase labeling showed that TRP32 is a stable protein whose half-life of >6 h is surprisingly reduced to 1 h upon exposure of cells to As(III). These findings reveal a previously undescribed thiol reductase at the proteasome's regulatory particle.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|