Permanent changes in gene expression result from certain forms of antifungal resistance. In this study, we asked whether any gene-expression changes are required for the evolution of a drug-resistant phenotype in populations. We examined the gene-expression changes resulting from the evolution of resistance in experimental populations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with two antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC) in a previous study and amphotericin B (AmB) in this study, in which five populations were subjected to increasing concentrations of AmB from 0.25 to 128 microg/ml in two-fold increments. Six genes, YGR035C, YOR1, ICT1, GRE2, PDR16, and YPLO88W, were consistently over expressed with the resistance to AmB reported here and with resistance to FLC involving a mechanism of increased-efflux reported previously. We then asked if deletion of these genes impaired the ability of populations to evolve resistance to FLC over 108 generations of asexual reproduction in 32 and in 128 microg/ml FLC, the same conditions under which FLC resistant types evolved originally. For each of three deletion strains, YOR1, ICT1, and PDR16, extinctions occurred in one of two replicate populations growing in 128 microg/ml FLC. Each of these three deletion strains was mixed 1:1 with a marked version of the wild type to measure the relative ability of the deletion strain to adapt over 108 generations. In these assays, only the PDR16 deletion strain consistently became extinct both at 32 and at 128 microg/ml FLC. The deletion of PDR16 reduces the capacity of a population to evolve to resistance to FLC.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|