Mitochondrial ATP synthase is mostly isolated in monomeric form, but in the inner mitochondrial membrane it seems to dimerize and to form higher oligomeric structures from dimeric building blocks. Following a period of electron microscopic single particle analyses that revealed an angular orientation of the membrane parts of monomeric ATP synthases in the dimeric structures, and after extensive studies of the monomer-monomer interface, the focus now shifts to the potentially dynamic state of the oligomeric structures, their potential involvement in metabolic regulation of mitochondria and cells, and to newly identified interactions like physical associations of complexes IV and V. Similarly, larger structures like respiratory strings that have been postulated to form from individual respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes, the respirasomes, come into the focus. Progress by structural investigations is paralleled by insights into the functional roles of respirasomes including substrate channelling and stabilization of individual complexes. Cardiolipin was found to be important for the structural stability of respirasomes which in turn is required to maintain cells and tissues in a healthy state. Defects in cardiolipin remodeling cause devastating diseases like Barth syndrome. Novel species-specific roles of respirasomes for the stability of respiratory complexes have been identified, and potential additional roles may be deduced from newly observed interactions of respirasomes with components of the protein import machinery and with the ADP/ATP translocator.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|