Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes proteins that are essential for cellular ATP production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are respiratory byproducts that damage mtDNA and other cellular components. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the oxidized base excision-repair enzyme Ntg1 introduces a double-stranded break (DSB) at the mtDNA replication origin ori5; this DSB initiates the rolling-circle mtDNA replication mediated by the homologous DNA pairing protein Mhr1. Thus, ROS may play a role in the regulation of mtDNA copy number. Here, we show that the treatment of isolated mitochondria with low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide increased mtDNA copy number in an Ntg1- and Mhr1-dependent manner. This treatment elevated the DSB levels at ori5 of hypersuppressive [rho(-)] mtDNA only if Ntg1 was active. In vitro Ntg1-treatment of hypersuppressive [rho(-)] mtDNA extracted from hydrogen peroxide-treated mitochondria revealed increased oxidative modifications at ori5 loci. We also observed that purified Ntg1 created breaks in single-stranded DNA harboring oxidized bases, and that ori5 loci have single-stranded character. Furthermore, chronic low levels of hydrogen peroxide increased in vivo mtDNA copy number. We therefore propose that ROS act as a regulator of mtDNA copy number, acting through the Mhr1-dependent initiation of rolling-circle replication promoted by Ntg1-induced DSB in the single-stranded regions at ori5.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|