Reference: Kosugi S, et al. (2009) Six Classes of Nuclear Localization Signals Specific to Different Binding Grooves of Importin {alpha}. J Biol Chem 284(1):478-85

Reference Help

Abstract

The importin a/ss pathway mediates nuclear import of proteins containing the classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Although the consensus sequences of the classical NLSs have been defined, there are still many NLSs that do not match the consensus rule and many nonfunctional sequences that match the consensus. We report here six different NLS classes that specifically bind to distinct binding pockets of importin a. By screening of random peptide libraries using an mRNA display, we selected peptides bound by importin a, and identified six classes of NLSs including three novel classes. Two noncanonical classes (class 3 and class 4) specifically bound the minor binding pocket of importin a, whereas the classical monopartite NLSs (class 1 and class 2) bound to the major binding pocket. Using a newly developed universally GFP expression system, we found that these NLS classes, including plant-specific class 5 NLSs and bipartite NLSs, fundamentally require the regions outside the core basic residues for their activity and have specific residues or patterns that confer the activities differently between yeast, plants, and mammals. Furthermore, amino acid replacement analyses revealed that the consensus basic patterns of the classical NLSs are not essential for activity, thereby generating more unconventional patterns including redox-sensitive NLSs. These results explain the causes of the NLS diversity. The defined consensus patterns and properties of importin a-dependent NLSs provide useful information for identifying NLSs.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Kosugi S, Hasebe M, Matsumura N, Takashima H, Miyamoto-Sato E, Tomita M, Yanagawa H
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference