The importin a/ss pathway mediates nuclear import of proteins containing the classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Although the consensus sequences of the classical NLSs have been defined, there are still many NLSs that do not match the consensus rule and many nonfunctional sequences that match the consensus. We report here six different NLS classes that specifically bind to distinct binding pockets of importin a. By screening of random peptide libraries using an mRNA display, we selected peptides bound by importin a, and identified six classes of NLSs including three novel classes. Two noncanonical classes (class 3 and class 4) specifically bound the minor binding pocket of importin a, whereas the classical monopartite NLSs (class 1 and class 2) bound to the major binding pocket. Using a newly developed universally GFP expression system, we found that these NLS classes, including plant-specific class 5 NLSs and bipartite NLSs, fundamentally require the regions outside the core basic residues for their activity and have specific residues or patterns that confer the activities differently between yeast, plants, and mammals. Furthermore, amino acid replacement analyses revealed that the consensus basic patterns of the classical NLSs are not essential for activity, thereby generating more unconventional patterns including redox-sensitive NLSs. These results explain the causes of the NLS diversity. The defined consensus patterns and properties of importin a-dependent NLSs provide useful information for identifying NLSs.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|