The mechanism by which the Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) causes neurodegeneration has not been elucidated. To determine the genes that protect cells from alpha-syn, we used a genetic screen to identify suppressors of the super sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing alpha-syn to killing by hydrogen peroxide. Forty genes in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, protein biosynthesis, vesicle trafficking, and the response to stress were identified. Five of the forty genes-ENT3, IDP3, JEM1, ARG2, and HSP82-ranked highest in their ability to block alpha-syn-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and these five genes were characterized in more detail. The deletion of any of these five genes enhanced the toxicity of alpha-syn as judged by growth defects compared to wild-type cells expressing alpha-syn, which indicates that these genes protect cells from alpha-syn. Strikingly, four of the five genes are specific for alpha-syn in that they fail to protect cells from the toxicity of the two inherited mutants A30P or A53T. This finding suggests that alpha-syn causes toxicity to cells via a different pathway than these two inherited mutants. Lastly, overexpression of Ent3p, which is a clathrin adapter protein involved in protein transport between the Golgi and the vacuole, causes alpha-syn to redistribute from the plasma membrane into cytoplasmic vesicular structures. Our interpretation is that Ent3p mediates the transport of alpha-syn to the vacuole for proteolytic degradation. A similar clathrin adaptor protein, epsinR, exists in humans.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|