The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal4 protein is a paradigmatic transcriptional activator containing a C-terminal acidic activation domain (AD) of 34 amino acids. A mutation that results in the truncation of about two-thirds of the Gal4AD (gal4D), results in a crippled protein with only 3% the activity of the wild-type activator. We show here while the Gal4D protein is not intrinsically deficient in DNA binding, it is nonetheless unable to stably occupy GAL promoters in vivo. This is shown to be due to the activity of the proteasomal ATPases, including Sug1/Rpt6, which bind to Gal4D via the remainder of the AD and strip it off of DNA. A mutation that suppresses the Gal4D "no growth on galactose" phenotype represses the stripping activity of the ATPase complex, but not other activities. We further demonstrate that Gal4D is hypersensitive to this stripping activity due to its failure to be mono-ubiquitylated efficiently in vivo and in vitro. Evidence is presented that the piece of the AD that is deleted in Gal4D protein is likely a recognition element for the E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies Gal4. These data argue that acidic ADs are comprised of at least two small peptide sub-domains, one of which is responsible for activator mono-ubiquitylation and another that interacts with the proteasomal ATPases, coactivators and other transcription factors. This study validates the physiological importance of Gal4 mono-ubiquitylation and clarifies that its major role is to protect the activator from being destabilized by the proteasomal ATPases.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|