Ca(2+)-sensitive mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing a Pet- phenotype (cls7-cls11) have lesions in a system for maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis (Ohya, Y., Ohsumi, Y., and Anraku, Y. (1986) J. Gen. Microbiol. 132, 979-988). Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that these Pet- cls mutants are related to defects in vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase. CLS7 and CLS8 were found to be identical with the structural genes encoding subunit c (VMA3) and subunit a (VMA1), respectively, of the enzyme. In addition, these five mutants all had vma defects; no vacuolar membrane ATPase activity was detected in the cls cells, and the cls mutants showed a loss of ability to acidify the vacuole in vivo. Measurements of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) in individual cells showed that the average [Ca2+]i in wild-type cells was 150 +/- 80 nM, whereas that in five Pet- cls cells was 900 +/- 100 nM. These data are consistent with the observation that vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from the Pet- cls cells have lost ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake activities. The cls defects of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase resulted in pleiotropic effects on several cellular activities, including Ca2+ homeostasis, glycerol metabolism, and phospholipid metabolism. The mutants showed an inositol-dependent phenotype, possibly due to alteration in regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis; the phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activities of the mutants were 15-50% of that of the wild-type cells and were not repressed by the addition of inositol. In contrast to the majority of previously isolated pet mutants (Tzagoloff, A., and Dieckmann, C. L. (1990) Microbiol. Rev. 54, 211-225), the Pet- cls mutants showed no detectable mitochondrial defects. Taking all these findings into account, we suggest that at least six genes, VMA1 (CLS8, subunit a), VMA2 (subunit b), VMA3 (CLS7, subunit c), VMA11 (CLS9), VMA12 (CLS10), and VMA13 (CLS11), are required for expression of the vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|