Take our Survey

Reference: Dumlao DS, et al. (2008) Secreted 3-Isopropylmalate Methyl Ester Signals Invasive Growth during Amino Acid Starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry 47(2):698-709

Reference Help

Abstract

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae methyltransferase encoded by TMT1 catalyzes the AdoMet-dependent monomethylation of 3-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of the leucine biosynthetic pathway. The biological significance of methylating 3-isopropylmalate and the relationship between Tmt1 and the leucine biosynthetic pathway is not yet established. We present evidence here showing that methylation of 3-isopropylmalate functions to extracellularly signal yeast to grow invasively. We show that methyl esterification generates 3-isopropylmalate-1-methyl ester. We find that the Tmt1 methyltransferase functions independently of the biosynthetic pathway but is induced when cells are starved for amino acids; the largest induction is observed with the removal of leucine from the media. This amino acid starvation stress response is controlled by the transcriptional activator Gcn4. After methylation, 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester is secreted into the media within 3 h. Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy confirm that the intact molecule is secreted. Finally, we show that purified 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester can enhance the ability of the haploid yeast strain 10560-23C to grow invasively. Our data identifies 3-isopropylmalate methyl ester as an autoinductive molecule that provides a signal to yeast to switch from vegetative to invasive growth in response to amino acid starvation.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Dumlao DS, Hertz N, Clarke S
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations

Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference