Monitoring Editor: Karsten Weis We previously showed that nuclear export of the large (60S) ribosomal subunit relies on Nmd3 in a Crm1-dependent manner. Recently the general mRNA export factor, the Mtr2/Mex67 heterodimer, was shown to act as an export receptor in parallel with Crm1. These observations raise the possibility that nuclear export of the 60S subunit in S. cerevisiae requires multiple export receptors. Here, we show that the previously characterized 60S subunit biogenesis factor, Arx1, also acts as an export receptor for the 60S subunit. We found that deletion of ARX1 was synthetic lethal with nmd3 and mtr2 mutants and was synthetic sick with several nucleoporin mutants. Deletion of ARX1 led to accumulation of pre-60S particles in the nucleus that were enriched for Nmd3, Crm1, Mex67 and Mtr2, suggesting that in the absence of Arx1, 60S export is impaired even though the subunit is loaded with export receptors. Finally, Arx1 interacted with several nucleoporins in yeast two-hybrid as well as in vitro assays. These results show that Arx1 can directly bridge the interaction between the pre-60S particle and the NPC and thus is a third export receptor for the 60S subunit in yeast.
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