Monitoring Editor: Charles Boone Under certain conditions of nutrient stress, the budding yeast S. cerevisiae initiates a striking developmental transition to a filamentous form of growth, resembling developmental transitions required for virulence in closely related pathogenic fungi. In yeast, filamentous growth involves known MAPK and PKA signaling modules, but the full scope of this extensive filamentous response has not been delineated. Accordingly, we have undertaken the first systematic gene disruption and overexpression analysis of yeast filamentous growth. Standard laboratory strains of yeast are nonfilamentous; thus, we constructed a unique set of reagents in the filamentous Sigma1278b strain, encompassing 3627 integrated transposon insertion alleles and 2043 overexpression constructs. Collectively, we analyzed 4528 yeast genes with these reagents and identified 487 genes conferring mutant filamentous phenotypes upon transposon insertion and/or gene overexpression. Using a fluorescent protein reporter integrated at the MUC1 locus, we further assayed each filamentous growth mutant for aberrant protein levels of the key flocculence factor Muc1p. Our results indicate a variety of genes and pathways affecting filamentous growth. In total, this filamentous growth gene set represents a wealth of yeast biology, highlighting 84 genes of uncharacterized function and an underappreciated role for the mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway as an inhibitor of filamentous growth.
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