Autophagy is a bulk degradation process in eukaryotic cells: autophagosomes enclose cytoplasmic components for degradation in the lysosome/vacuole. Autophagosome formation requires two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, the Atg12 and Atg8 systems, which are tightly associated with expansion of autophagosomal membrane. Previous studies have suggested that there is a hierarchy between these systems: the Atg12 system is located upstream of the Atg8 system in the context of Atg proteins organization; however, the concrete molecular relationship is unclear. Here, we show using an in vitro Atg8 conjugation system that the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate, but not unconjugated Atg12 or Atg5, strongly enhance the formation of the other conjugate, Atg8-PE. The Atg12-Atg5 conjugate promotes the transfer of Atg8 from Atg3 to the substrate, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by stimulating the activity of Atg3. We also show that the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate interacts with both Atg3 and PE-containing liposomes. These results indicate that the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate is an E3-like enzyme for Atg8-PE conjugation reaction, distinctively promoting protein-lipid conjugation.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|