New methods for an extended physiological characterization of yeast at a microtiter plate scale were applied to 27 deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated on glucose and galactose as sole carbon sources. In this way, specific growth rates, specific rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were determined. Flux distribution, particularly concerning branching into the pentose phosphate pathway was determined using a new (13)C-labelling method using MALDI-ToF-mass spectrometry. On glucose, the growth was predominantly fermentative whereas on galactose respiration was more active with correspondingly lower ethanol production. Some deletion strains showed unexpected behavior providing very informative data about the function of the corresponding gene. Deletion of malic enzyme gene, MAE1, did not show any significant phenotype when grown on glucose but a drastically increased branching from glucose 6-phosphate into the pentose phosphate pathway when grown on galactose. This allows the conclusion that MAE1 is important for the supply of NADPH during aerobic growth on galactose.
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