Telomere structure allows cells to distinguish the natural chromosome ends from double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, DNA damage response proteins are intimately involved in telomere metabolism, suggesting that functional telomeres may be recognized as DNA damage during a time window. Here we show by two different systems that short telomeres are recognized as DSBs during the time of their replication, because they induce a transient MRX-dependent DNA damage checkpoint response during their prolonged elongation. The MRX complex, which is recruited at telomeres under these conditions, dissociates from telomeres concomitantly with checkpoint switch off when telomeres reach a new equilibrium length. We also show that MRX recruitment to telomeres is sufficient to activate the checkpoint independently of telomere elongation. We propose that MRX can signal checkpoint activation by binding to short telomeres only when they become competent for elongation. Because full-length telomeres are refractory to MRX binding and the shortest telomeres are elongated of only a few base pairs per generation, this limitation may prevent unscheduled checkpoint activation during an unperturbed S phase.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|