We perform a systematic analysis of mechanisms of feedback regulation that underlie short-term adaptation in intracellular signaling systems. Upon receiving an external cue, these systems generate a transient response that quickly returns to basal levels even if the stimulus persists. Signaling pathways capable of short-term adaptation are found in systems as diverse as the high osmolarity response of yeast, gradient sensing in Dictyostelium, and the cytokine response in vertebrates. Using mathematical analysis and computational experiments we compare different feedback architectures in terms of response amplitude and duration, ability to adapt, and response to variable stimulus levels. Our analysis reveals three important features of these systems: 1) multiple step signaling cascades improve sensitivity to low doses by an effect distinct from signal amplification, 2) some feedback architectures act as signal transducers converting stimulus strength into response duration, and 3) feedback deactivation acts as a dose-dependent switch between transient and sustained responses. Finally, we present characteristic features for each form of feedback regulation that can aid in their identification.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|