Reference: Kuma A, et al. (2007) LC3, an Autophagosome Marker, Can be Incorporated into Protein Aggregates Independent of Autophagy: Caution in the Interpretation of LC3 Localization. Autophagy 3(4):323-328

Reference Help

Abstract


Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation system, through which a portion of the cytoplasm is delivered to lysosomes to be degraded. Microtuble-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), a mammalian homolog of yeast Atg8, has been used as a specific marker to monitor autophagy. Upon induction of autophagy, LC3 is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine and targeted to autophagic membranes. Therefore, changes in LC3 localization have been used to measure autophagy. However, this method has some limitations. In this report, we show that LC3 protein tends to aggregate in an autophagy-independent manner when it is transiently overexpressed by transfection. In addition, LC3 is easily incorporated into intracellular protein aggregates, such as inclusion bodies induced by polyQ expression or formed in autophagy-deficient hepatocytes, neurons, or senescent fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that punctate dots containing LC3 do not always represent autophagic structures. Therefore, LC3 localization should be carefully interpreted, particularly if LC3 is overexpressed by transient transfection or if aggregates are formed within cells.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Kuma A, Matsui M, Mizushima N
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference