Cells use transcription-coupled repair (TCR) to efficiently eliminate DNA lesions such as ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Here we present the structure-based mechanism for the first step in eukaryotic TCR, CPD-induced stalling of RNA polymerase (Pol) II. A CPD in the transcribed strand slowly passes a translocation barrier and enters the polymerase active site. The CPD 5'-thymine then directs uridine misincorporation into messenger RNA, which blocks translocation. Artificial replacement of the uridine by adenosine enables CPD bypass; thus, Pol II stalling requires CPD-directed misincorporation. In the stalled complex, the lesion is inaccessible, and the polymerase conformation is unchanged. This is consistent with nonallosteric recruitment of repair factors and excision of a lesion-containing DNA fragment in the presence of Pol II.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|