Yeast Sin1 binds to the Sty1 kinase, a member of the stress-activated kinases (SAPKs), and is required for stress-induced phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor Atf1, a homolog of the vertebrate-activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). Here we report that mammalian Sin1 plays an important role in the SAPK signaling pathway by binding to both ATF-2 and p38. In response to stress, ATF-2, a member of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein family, is phosphorylated by p38/Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase and activates the transcription of apoptosis-related genes. In contrast, in response to serum stimulation, ATF-2 is phosphorylated via the Ras effector pathway and leads to the induction of growth-related genes. We found that Sin1 binds directly to both ATF-2 and p38. Sin1 over-expression enhanced osmotic stress-induced phosphorylation of ATF-2 and ATF-2-mediated transcription, whereas knockdown of Sin1 expression by siRNA suppressed these responses. Moreover, a reduction in Sin1 expression suppressed osmotic stress-induced apoptosis and the expression of Gadd45beta, one of the ATF-2 target genes that is correlated with apoptosis. Decreased Sin1 expression, however, did not affect the serum stimulation-induced phosphorylation of ATF-2. Sin1 may contribute to ATF-2 signaling specificity by acting as a nuclear scaffold.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|